Victorian Lives behind Victorian Crimes: The women who made Jack the Ripper famous
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Rumours that the murders were connected intensified in September and October , and letters were received by media outlets and Scotland Yard from a writer or writers purporting to be the murderer. The name "Jack the Ripper" originated in a letter written by someone claiming to be the murderer that was disseminated in the media. The letter is widely believed to have been a hoax and may have been written by journalists in an attempt to heighten interest in the story and increase their newspapers' circulation.
The "From Hell" letter received by George Lusk of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee came with half of a preserved human kidney, purportedly taken from one of the victims. The public came increasingly to believe in a single serial killer known as "Jack the Ripper", mainly because of the extraordinarily brutal nature of the murders, and because of media treatment of the events. Extensive newspaper coverage bestowed widespread and enduring international notoriety on the Ripper, and the legend solidified.
A police investigation into a series of eleven brutal killings in Whitechapel up to was unable to connect all the killings conclusively to the murders of The murders were never solved, and the legends surrounding them became a combination of genuine historical research, folklore, and pseudohistory. The term "ripperology" was coined to describe the study and analysis of the Ripper cases.
There are now over one hundred hypotheses about the Ripper's identity , and the murders have inspired many works of fiction. In the midth century, Britain experienced an influx of Irish immigrants who swelled the populations of the major cities, including the East End of London. From , Jewish refugees from pogroms in Tsarist Russia and other areas of Eastern Europe emigrated into the same area.
Work and housing conditions worsened, and a significant economic underclass developed. In October , London's Metropolitan Police Service estimated that there were 62 brothels and 1, women working as prostitutes in Whitechapel. Between and , frequent demonstrations led to police intervention and public unrest, such as that of 13 November The large number of attacks against women in the East End during this time adds uncertainty to how many victims were killed by the same person. Smith was robbed and sexually assaulted in Osborn Street , Whitechapel, on 3 April A blunt object was inserted into her vagina , rupturing her peritoneum.
She developed peritonitis and died the following day at London Hospital. Tabram was killed on 7 August ; she had suffered 39 stab wounds. The savagery of the murder, the lack of obvious motive, and the closeness of the location George Yard, Whitechapel and date to those of the later Ripper murders led police to link them. Nichols' body was discovered at about a.
The throat was severed by two cuts, and the lower part of the abdomen was partly ripped open by a deep, jagged wound. Several other incisions on the abdomen were caused by the same knife. Chapman's body was discovered at about 6 a. As in the case of Mary Ann Nichols, the throat was severed by two cuts. Stride and Eddowes were killed in the early morning of Sunday 30 September Stride's body was discovered at about 1 a.
The cause of death was one clear-cut incision which severed the main artery on the left side of the neck.
Victorian Lives behind Victorian Crimes: I am Jack, I am Jack, No I am Jack the Ripper- Part One
The absence of mutilations to the abdomen has led to uncertainty about whether Stride's murder should be attributed to the Ripper or whether he was interrupted during the attack. Eddowes' body was found in Mitre Square in the City of London , three-quarters of an hour after Stride's.
The throat was severed and the abdomen was ripped open by a long, deep, jagged wound. The left kidney and the major part of the uterus had been removed.
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A local man named Joseph Lawende had passed through the square with two friends shortly before the murder, and he described seeing a fair-haired man of shabby appearance with a woman who may have been Eddowes. Some writing on the wall above the apron piece became known as the Goulston Street graffito and seemed to implicate a Jew or Jews, but it was unclear whether the graffito was written by the murderer as he dropped the apron piece, or was merely incidental.
Police Commissioner Charles Warren feared that the graffito might spark anti-semitic riots and ordered it washed away before dawn. Kelly's mutilated and disembowelled body was discovered lying on the bed in the single room where she lived at 13 Miller's Court, off Dorset Street, Spitalfields , at a. The throat had been severed down to the spine, and the abdomen almost emptied of its organs. The heart was missing.
The canonical five murders were perpetrated at night, on or close to a weekend, either at the end of a month or a week or so after. Historically, the belief that these five crimes were committed by the same man is derived from contemporary documents that link them together to the exclusion of others. Evans and Donald Rumbelow argue that the canonical five is a "Ripper myth" and that three cases Nichols, Chapman, and Eddowes can be definitely linked but there is less certainty over Stride and Kelly.
Kelly is generally considered to be the Ripper's final victim, and it is assumed that the crimes ended because of the culprit's death, imprisonment, institutionalisation, or emigration. There was no sign of a struggle, and the police believed that she had accidentally hanged herself on her collar while in a drunken stupor or committed suicide. McKenzie was killed on 17 July by severance of the left carotid artery.
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Several minor bruises and cuts were found on the body, discovered in Castle Alley, Whitechapel. One of the examining pathologists, Thomas Bond, believed this to be a Ripper murder, though his colleague George Bagster Phillips , who had examined the bodies of three previous victims, disagreed. It seems probable that the murder was committed elsewhere and that parts of the dismembered body were dispersed for disposal. Coles was killed on 13 February under a railway arch at Swallow Gardens, Whitechapel. Her throat was cut but the body was not mutilated. James Thomas Sadler was seen earlier with her and was arrested by the police, charged with her murder, and briefly thought to be the Ripper.
In addition to the eleven Whitechapel murders, commentators have linked other attacks to the Ripper. In the case of "Fairy Fay", it is unclear whether the attack was real or fabricated as a part of Ripper lore. Annie Millwood was admitted to Whitechapel workhouse infirmary with stab wounds in the legs and lower torso on 25 February She had a superficial cut on her throat, but it was possibly self-inflicted.
An arm belonging to the body was previously discovered floating in the River Thames near Pimlico , and one of the legs was subsequently discovered buried near where the torso was found. The mutilations were similar to those in the Pinchin Street case, where the legs and head were severed but not the arms. The Whitehall Mystery and the Pinchin Street case may have been part of a series of murders called the " Thames Mysteries ", committed by a single serial killer dubbed the "Torso killer".
She may have been another victim of the "Torso killer". John Gill, a seven-year-old boy, was found murdered in Manningham, Bradford , on 29 December His legs had been severed, his abdomen opened, his intestines drawn out, and his heart and one ear removed. The similarities with the murder of Mary Kelly led to press speculation that the Ripper had killed him. Carrie Brown nicknamed "Shakespeare", reportedly for quoting Shakespeare's sonnets was strangled with clothing and then mutilated with a knife on 24 April in New York City.
No organs were removed from the scene, though an ovary was found upon the bed, either purposely removed or unintentionally dislodged. The surviving police files on the Whitechapel murders allow a detailed view of investigative procedure in the Victorian era. Forensic material was collected and examined.
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Suspects were identified, traced, and either examined more closely or eliminated from the inquiry. Modern police work follows the same pattern. A group of volunteer citizens in London's East End called the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee patrolled the streets looking for suspicious characters, partly because of dissatisfaction with the police effort. They petitioned the government to raise a reward for information about the killer, and hired private detectives to question witnesses independently. Butchers, slaughterers, surgeons, and physicians were suspected because of the manner of the mutilations.
A surviving note from Major Henry Smith, Acting Commissioner of the City Police , indicates that the alibis of local butchers and slaughterers were investigated, with the result that they were eliminated from the inquiry. Whitechapel was close to the London Docks ,  and usually such boats docked on Thursday or Friday and departed on Saturday or Sunday.
At the end of October, Robert Anderson asked police surgeon Thomas Bond to give his opinion on the extent of the murderer's surgical skill and knowledge. All five murders no doubt were committed by the same hand. In the first four the throats appear to have been cut from left to right, in the last case owing to the extensive mutilation it is impossible to say in what direction the fatal cut was made, but arterial blood was found on the wall in splashes close to where the woman's head must have been lying.
All the circumstances surrounding the murders lead me to form the opinion that the women must have been lying down when murdered and in every case the throat was first cut. Bond was strongly opposed to the idea that the murderer possessed any kind of scientific or anatomical knowledge, or even "the technical knowledge of a butcher or horse slaughterer".
There is no evidence of any sexual activity with any of the victims,   yet psychologists suppose that the penetration of the victims with a knife and "leaving them on display in sexually degrading positions with the wounds exposed" indicates that the perpetrator derived sexual pleasure from the attacks. The concentration of the killings around weekends and public holidays and within a few streets of each other has indicated to many that the Ripper was in regular employment and lived locally.
Everyone alive at the time is now dead, and modern authors are free to accuse anyone "without any need for any supporting historical evidence". There are many and varied theories about the identity and profession of Jack the Ripper, but authorities are not agreed upon any of them, and the number of named suspects reaches over one hundred.
Over the course of the Ripper murders, the police, newspapers, and others received hundreds of letters regarding the case. Hundreds of letters claimed to have been written by the killer himself,  and three of these in particular are prominent: the "Dear Boss" letter , the "Saucy Jacky" postcard and the "From Hell" letter. Download Snowblind PDF. Download Stalker! Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics. Free A muck manual for farmers: A treatise on the physical and chemical properties of soils, the chemistry of manures : including also the subjects of composts, artificial manures, and irrigation PDF Download.